By I. Marius. Lee University. 2018.
People with musculoskeletal conditions discount tadora 20 mg amex, even if requiring intensive medical care generic tadora 20 mg on-line, spend most of their time within 13 BONE AND JOINT FUTURES the community and that is where support is needed. Apart from general understanding and support, gained through a greater awareness of musculoskeletal conditions and their impacts, the community can help through providing specific facilities, such as for exercise, and ensure that the local environment does not create barriers for those less physically able. Support groups for those with chronic disease provide valuable help and encouragement. They can provide more specific help, such as by giving information, ensuring the person gains appropriate help within the social welfare system or promoting and teaching self-management. The broader community also plays a critical role in setting health and social policies – ensuring the provision of appropriate services, insurance benefits, civil rights laws for persons with disabilities and other health-related regulations that affect the lives of people with a chronic condition. Health system A system seeking to improve the health of those with musculoskeletal conditions must ensure the focus of care is not just for the acute episodes or those with systemic complications that can threaten life, but also delivers high quality care achieving the highest attainable outcomes by looking at the problems people have in their homes and communities as well as their problems with their personal health throughout the natural history of their condition. The system should not treat people differently dependent on the nature of the disorder they have – whether it is acute, chronic, curable, treatable or where symptom relief is the only option – neither should age related conditions be discriminated against because they are “inevitable”. However, private health insurers, in particular where there is an alternative system of care such as in the UK, are increasingly excluding chronic disease from their cover, which is of no help to the individual who does not choose one form of illness over another. It is hoped that the new effective means of treating these conditions will in part counteract this attitude. Ways of controlling demand should not unfairly affect those with musculoskeletal conditions. The gatekeeper should be competent to give the appropriate level of care and be able to recognise his/her limitations and know when a higher level of care can result in an improved outcome to avoid the rationalisation of care becoming the 14 CARE FOR MUSCULOSKELETAL CONDITIONS rationing of care. This requires higher levels of competency in the management of musculoskeletal conditions by the primary care team than presently exists. Support by an integrated multidisciplinary expert team that crosses the health sectors from secondary to primary care can also ensure cost effective management using an appropriate level of skill and intervention. Overtreatment is just as harmful as undertreatment in chronic musculoskeletal conditions, inducing dependency on healthcare interventions and expectation that cannot be fulfilled. Self-management People with musculoskeletal conditions must take better care of themselves and actively participate in their care to minimise the impact of their condition. They need to be trained in proven methods of minimising symptoms, impact and complications. However, effective self-management means more than telling patients what to do. It means giving patients a central role in determining their care, one that fosters a sense of responsibility for their own health. Using a collaborative approach, providers and patients must work together to define problems, set priorities, establish goals, create treatment plans and solve problems along the way. The multidisciplinary team must include the person with the musculoskeletal condition as a member of the team and not as its subject. Likewise the person must take responsibility and actively work towards helping themselves – not just receiving care but participating by, for example, doing exercise and losing weight if so advised. This approach will require the right attitudes by both the person with the musculoskeletal condition and by the providers of care as well as the means to provide education and support. Health consumer informatics has great potential to help with this, but it is the responsibility of the healthcare team to ensure the person understands the nature of his or her condition, what to expect and how to manage it. This requires an accurate diagnosis and then good communication and support. The latter should be given by all members of the team but the specialist nurse can play a vital role as they have the expertise and the ear of the patient who is frequently not receptive to information in the classic healthcare environment. Delivery system Improving the health of people with chronic conditions requires transforming a system that is essentially reactive, responding mainly 15 BONE AND JOINT FUTURES when a person is sick due to an exacerbation or complication, to one that is proactive and focused on keeping a person as healthy and independent as possible. That requires not only determining what care is needed, but also spelling out roles and tasks and setting targets to ensure the patient gets the care – not just knowing a patient with rheumatoid arthritis needs monitoring of disease activity, but developing a system that ensures it happens. Audit should be used to ensure these systems are working and delivering the expected results. It requires making sure that all the providers who take care of a patient have up to date information about the patient’s status.
On the basis of this patient’s clinical picture order 20 mg tadora, what would be the most likely cause of these seizures? Nonepileptic seizure Key Concept/Objective: To recognize the clinical picture of nonepileptic seizures Approximately 20% of patients admitted to epilepsy monitoring units for diagnostic eval- uation have episodic behavioral alterations that are not caused by physiologic dysfunction of the brain buy cheap tadora 20mg line. In the past, these alterations were called pseudoseizures; currently, the pre- ferred term for such seizures is nonepileptic seizures. Use of this term tends to help the patients understand their problem and facilitates referral for behavioral therapy. An important clue to the diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures is that they are periodic events that tend not to be stereotyped. Both patients and observers report varied behaviors with each event. Nonepileptic seizures may last 30 min- utes to several hours—longer than typical seizures. Patients with both nonepileptic seizures and epilepsy pose a challenging problem; this combination is occasionally found in patients undergoing assessment in epilepsy monitoring units. Treatment of nonepileptic seizures requires behavioral intervention. If both disorders are found, treatment of epilep- sy needs to be continued in parallel with behavioral therapy. A 44-year-old woman is admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. She has a medical history of epilep- sy, for which she has been receiving phenytoin for the past 10 years. She reports having fever, cough, and shortness of breath, but she denies having any neurologic symptoms. Her physical examination shows increased breath sounds at the right base, consistent with pneumonia. Her neurologic examination, including gait, is normal. In the emergency department, the patient’s phenytoin level was assessed; results show the phenytoin level to be elevated at 25 µg/ml (normal, 10 to 20 µg/ml). Which of the following would be the most appropriate way to address this patient’s elevated pheny- toin level? Hold the next dose of phenytoin, then restart the previous regimen of phenytoin C. Hold phenytoin, assess the patient’s phenytoin levels daily until they are subtherapeutic, then restart phenytoin D. Hold phenytoin, then restart before discharge and follow the patient’s phenytoin levels periodically to make sure they are therapeutic Key Concept/Objective: To recognize the general principles of epilepsy drug therapy Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment should be directed at both controlling seizures and, when possible, correcting the underlying disease or disorder. AEDs may be used only briefly, if at all, in patients who have had a single seizure or a few seizures resulting from a transient disorder. Patients who have recurrent seizures should be treated with AEDs. Treatment with AEDs should follow certain basic principles. Seizure control should be achieved, if possible, by increasing the dosage of this agent. If seizure control cannot be achieved with the first medication, an alternative agent should be considered. Monotherapy can control seizures in about 60% of 34 BOARD REVIEW the patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. The use of two or more AEDs should be avoid- ed if possible, but drug combinations may be useful when monotherapy fails. Drug selec- tion should be guided by the patient’s seizure type and epilepsy syndrome classification in concert with the mechanisms of action and side effects. Changes in dosage should be guid- ed by the patient’s clinical response rather than by drug levels; inadequate seizure control indicates the need for increasing the dose, and toxicity indicates the need to lower the dosage. Monitoring of levels is usually not necessary for patients who tolerate their med- ication well and have adequate seizure control. In some circumstances, the monitoring of drug levels may be useful in determining prescription compliance or to explain changes in seizure control or drug toxicity.
Pregnancy can also be associated with an increasing frequency of attacks and more symptomatic episodes generic 20 mg tadora amex. Ventricular preexcitation may be evident on a baseline ECG as fusion complexes (WPW pattern) purchase tadora 20 mg free shipping. The WPW pattern comprises a short PR interval and an earlier-than-normal deflection on the QRS complex (delta wave). The ECG during AVRT will usually show a narrow complex with the retrograde P wave falling in the ST segment, because atrial acti- vation occurs well after ventricular depolarization. The acute management of AVRT is sim- ilar to that for AVNRT: adenosine is the drug of choice, but calcium channel blockers or beta blockers are also effective. Long-term therapy for AVRT may be directed at interfering with conduction either through the AV node (i. The remarkable efficacy and safety of ablation make this mode of therapy more attractive than long-term drug therapy for symptomatic patients. Drug therapy carries the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. Hence, ablation is cur- rently recommended for all patients with symptomatic WPW. A 60-year-old man presents to his primary care physician for evaluation of dizziness and increased fatigue. An electrocardiogram is performed as part of his evaluation. The ECG demonstrates complete heart block, with a ventricular rate of 44 beats/min. The patient is referred for implantation of a pace- maker. Temporary pacing in the setting of acute myocardial infarction com- plicated by conduction abnormalities and hemodynamic instability ❏ B. Resynchronization in the treatment of heart failure ❏ C. Type I second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block in an asymptomatic athlete ❏ D. Neurocardiogenic syncope with significant bradycardia Key Concept/Objective: To know the various indications for cardiac pacing Conduction abnormalities are common in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Patients with acute inferior infarction can manifest a variety of abnormalities, including sinoatrial (SA) node dysfunction, first-degree AV block, type I second-degree block, and third-degree block at the level of the AV node. It is uncommon for any of these conduc- tion disturbances to persist after the acute phase of the infarction. These patients often require temporary pacing if they manifest hemodynamic instability. Cardiac resynchro- nization therapy is an exciting new development in the treatment of heart failure. Complete AV block with bradycardia and the presence of symptoms is an indication for permanent cardiac pacing. Classic neurocardiogenic syncope involves sinus tachycardia followed by bradycardia, vasodilatation, and syncope. Some patients have primarily a vasodepressive (vasodilatation) syndrome, whereas others have a syndrome with a signif- icant cardioinhibitory component (bradycardia). In the setting of bradycardia, cardiac pacemaker implantation is necessary. It is not uncommon for trained athletes to have type I second-degree AV block and be asymptomatic. A 67-year-old female patient of yours is admitted to the hospital. She has a permanent pacemaker and sees a cardiologist. In reviewing her chart, you note that her pacemaker program code is VVI, with a lower rate of 60 beats/min. Both the atria and ventricles are programmed to be paced ❏ B. When the intrinsic heart rate falls below 60 beats/min, pacing will occur ❏ D.
This case illustrates the most common symptoms of pneumothorax: chest pain and dyspnea buy tadora 20mg free shipping. In addition buy tadora 20mg amex, this patient is a good example of someone in whom pneumothorax should be suspected, given his sudden onset of chest pain and dyspnea in conjunction with his history of chronic airflow obstruction. A 32-year-old man develops a nonproductive cough and experiences some decrease in his exertional tol- erance, secondary to dyspnea, and general malaise. During your evaluation, you order a chest radiograph, which reveals bilateral hilar adenopathy. Berylliosis Key Concept/Objective: To know the most common cause of bilateral hilar adenopathy and to know the differential diagnosis The most common cause of bilateral hilar adenopathy is sarcoidosis, especially in those persons between 20 and 40 years of age. Lymphoma, tuberculosis, malignancy, and berylliosis should all be included as diagnostic possibilities. Lymphoma is often accom- panied by lymphadenopathy at other sites, systemic symptoms, and anemia. When hilar adenopathy is a manifestation of metastatic disease, the primary malignancy is usually known or easily identifiable. Chronic granulomatous diseases such as tubercu- losis and histoplasmosis usually present with unilateral rather than bilateral hilar adenopathy. It can be difficult to differentiate berylliosis from sarcoidosis; in the for- mer, there is usually a history of occupational exposure to beryllium in the manufac- ture of alloys, ceramics, or high-technology electronics. A 65-year-old man is admitted to the intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation. There are no fami- ly members available to discuss the patient’s history or current care. On arrival at the emergency depart- ment, the paramedics told the staff that the patient was “found down” in the park and smelled of alco- 14 RESPIRATORY MEDICINE 33 hol. His initial hemoglobin oxygen saturation was 60%, and respirations were labored; thus, the patient was urgently intubated. Results of physical examination are as follows: temperature, 95. The patient is generally disheveled, with poor hygiene. Chest x-ray reveals bilateral interstitial and alveolar infiltrates. ECG reveals Q waves throughout the precordial leads. Which of the following statements regarding the differentiation between cardiogenic and noncardio- genic pulmonary edema is true? A bat’s-wing or butterfly pattern on chest x-ray is more typical of noncardiogenic than cardiogenic pulmonary edema B. Distinct air bronchograms are more common with cardiogenic pul- monary edema C. A widened vascular pedicle and an increase in the cardiothoracic ratio suggest cardiogenic pulmonary edema D. Pulmonary arterial catheterization will yield useful information in these patients and will decrease their overall mortality Key Concept/Objective: To know how to differentiate cardiogenic pulmonary edema from non- cardiogenic pulmonary edema Ancillary features that can be routinely visualized on an anteroposterior chest radi- ograph made with a portable x-ray machine may help differentiate cardiogenic from noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. A widened vascular pedicle and an increase in the cardiothoracic ratio suggest increased pulmonary capillary pressure; distinct air bron- chograms are more common with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. A predominant- ly perihilar distribution of pulmonary edema is common, and occasionally, there is a very sharp demarcation between the central area of pulmonary edema and the lung periphery, leading to a so-called bat’s-wing or butterfly pattern. This pattern is more typical of cardiogenic than noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Despite the logical appeal of the use of pulmonary arterial catheters, no beneficial effect on outcome has been attributed to their use. A study of a large number of patients in intensive care units has suggested that patients who had pulmonary arterial catheters had a higher mortality at a higher financial cost than patients who did not undergo catheterization. A 61-year-old woman presents to the emergency department. She was in her usual state of health until 2 days ago, when she developed fever; a cough productive of rusty sputum; chills; and exertional dysp- nea. She denies having any contact with sick persons, and she has otherwise been very healthy.
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