By F. Kor-Shach. Westminster College, Fulton Missouri.
One dose was given before breakfast and another was given before dinner best 20mg cialis sublingual. During treatment purchase cialis sublingual 20mg without prescription, the patients were asked to avoid fatty, greasy, sweet, or spicy food, alcohol, and cigarettes. From The Treatment of 78 Cases of Pediatric Enuresis by the Method of Regulating Both the Lungs & Kidneys by Li Xiang Dong, He Bei Zhong Yi (Hebei Chinese Medicine), 2003, #4, p. The course of disease was as short as two months and as long as 11 years. These patients had enuresis less than three times per day in 52 cases and more than three times in 26 cases. Nine cases were deter- mined to have occult spina bifida by an x-ray of their lumbosacral area. Treatment method: All the patients received the following Chinese medicinal formula: 66 Treating Pediatric Bed-wetting with Acupuncture & Chinese Medicine mix-fried Ma Huang (Herba Ephedrae), 9g Fu Ping Zi (Herba Spirodelae), 9g Gao Ben (Rhizoma Ligustici), 9g Shi Chang Pu (Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii), 9g Jin Ying Zi (Fructus Rosae Laevigatae), 9g mix-fried Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), 5g If there was lower origin vacuity cold, nine grams each of Tu Si Zi (Semen Cuscutae) and Bu Gu Zhi (Fructus Psoraleae) were added. If there was spleen-lung dual qi vacuity, nine grams each of Tai Zi Shen (Radix Pseudostellariae), Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), and Shan Yao (Radix Dioscoreae) and six grams of Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae) were added. If there was liver channel damp heat, nine grams each of Zhi Mu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae) and Huang Bai (Cortex Phellodendri) were added. One packet of these medicinals was decocted per day until the medicinal liquid was reduced to 150 milliliter of liquid. Study outcomes: Thirty-two cases were cured, 41 cases improved, and five cases did not improve. Li believes that enuresis is often caused by insufficiency of the kidneys and lungs and their consequent inability to perform their physiological functions. Because of this, the author employs the method of regulating both the lungs and kidneys to treat enuresis. Within the above formula, mix-fried Ma Huang and Gao Ben enter the lung and bladder channels. They diffuse and free the flow of the lung qi and regulate the waterways. Shi Chang Pu, when combined with Ma Huang, has the ability to arouse the spir- it and open the orifices. Jin Ying Zi is a sour and astringent medic- inal which is able to constrain and contain the urine and stop enuresis, while Gan Cao regulates and harmonizes all the other medicinals in the formula. From The Treatment of Pediatric Enuresis Based on Experience [Using] Chinese Medicinals by Hou Ge-ping, Zhe Jiang Zhong Yi Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi (Zhejiang Journal of Integrated Chinese-Western Medicine Journal), 1998, #6, p. If the case was considered mild, the child would wet the bed 3-4 times each week, while serious cases would wet the bed 1-2 times a night or even 3-4 times a night. The course of disease was as short as one month and as long as one year. Treatment method: Suo Quan Wan (Reduce the Stream Pills) were composed of: Shan Yao (Radix Dioscoreae), 10-20g Wu Yao (Radix Linderae), 5-10g Yi Zhi Ren (Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae), 5-10g If there was kidney yang vacuity presenting with a bright, white facial complexion, aversion to cold, cold limbs, fatigued spirit, lack of strength, long, clear, frequent urination, tender, pale tongue with white fur, and a deep, slow, forceless pulse, 5-10 grams each of Tu Si Zi (Semen Cuscutae) and Fu Pen Zi (Fructus Rubi) and 3-5 grams of Bu Gu Zhi (Fructus Psoraleae) were added. For even more serious cases, the author chose between Rou Gui (Cortex Cinnamomi), Zhi Fu Zi (Radix Lateralis Praeparatus Aconiti Carmichaeli), and/or Long Gu (Os Draconis). If there was spleen vacuity presenting with a sallow yellow, lusterless facial complex- ion, feeble spirit, emaciation, shortness of breath, laziness to speak, torpid intake, sloppy stools, a tender, pale tongue with white fur, and a fine, vacuous pulse, 5-10 grams of stir-fried Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) and Fu Ling (Poria) were added. The continuous administration of 10 packets of these medicinals equaled one course of treatment. Hou, the cerebrum, urination, and spinal function on the whole have already been established in children more than three years old, and their kidney function also has already basical- ly reached normal adult standards. Therefore, the child is already able control their desire to urinate and urinate at will. Thus, the child does not always have command of their urination during sleep. According to Chinese medicine, the regulation of water fluids in the human body is controlled by the spleen, lungs, kidneys, and triple burner. In that case, one cannot contain oneself, thus causing enuresis and urinary incontinence. Based on the preceding theory, within the above formula, Shan Yao fortifies the spleen and supplements the lungs and kidneys. Yi Zhi Ren warms and supplements the spleen and kidneys and astringes urination.
The larger size than the dynamic efferent and buy generic cialis sublingual 20mg on line, when number of spindles in other muscles varies from present generic 20mg cialis sublingual with visa, they innervate the long chain ﬁbre, so alter- <50 for intrinsic muscles of the hand to >1000 for ing the static behaviour of the primary ending. However, spindle density seems to be greatest for the muscles of the neck (where Methodology theymayhaveacomplexmorphology,particularlyin deep paraspinal muscles, see above) and the intrin- sic muscles of the hand. Discredited techniques Comparisons of tendon jerk and H reﬂex as (skeleto-fusimotor) neurones measures of fusimotor drive Underlying principle Theseneuronesinnervatebothintra-andextra-fusal muscle ﬁbres (Bessou, Emonet-Denand & Laporte,´ Based on the fact that the H reﬂex bypasses the mus- 1965) and, in the cat hindlimb, perhaps 30% spin- cle spindle while the tendon jerk does not, many dles receive such innervation. Their activity would authors have, following Paillard (1955), implicitly obligatorily result in a coupling of spindle excitation accepted that comparisons of the H reﬂex and ten- and muscle contraction. However, this is unlikely don jerk can be used to provide a reliable measure of to account for the consistent ﬁnding that voluntary fusimotor activity. As a result of such comparisons, effort results in parallel activation of muscle and and of the uncritical use of local anaesthetic nerve muscle spindle endings because (i) during pressure blocks, it became accepted that (i) there is a sig- block experiments to the point of paralysis (presum- niﬁcant level of background fusimotor drive in the ably blocking large axons before small axons), relaxedstate,particularlyindynamic motoraxons; voluntary effort can still activate spindle endings (ii) this background fusimotor drive sensitises spin- (Burke, Hagbarth & Skuse, 1979); (ii) speciﬁc search dleendingstopercussionintherelaxedstate;and(iii) for a coupling of spindle discharge to EMG activity withoutthisbackgroundfusimotordrivetherewould using spike-triggered averaging has been unreward- be no tendon jerk. These views have been the sub- ing in one study (Gandevia, Burke & McKeon, 1986a) ject of critical reappraisal, as have many of the con- though not in a subsequent study (Kakuda, Miwa & clusions about motor control mechanisms in health Nagaoka, 1998); and (iii) there have been anecdotal and disease that were based on them (Burke, 1983; reports of changes in spindle discharge that could e. Each of the above statements is be produced in relaxed muscles without the appear- probably erroneous: there is now substantial experi- anceofdetectableEMG(Gandeviaetal. There clusions about fusimotor function cannot be drawn is anatomical evidence of innervation of human fromsuchcomparisons(e. Burke,McKeon&Skuse, spindles and suggestive evidence that this may be 1981a,b;Burke, Gandevia & McKeon, 1983, 1984; physiologically signiﬁcant: corticospinal volleys and Morita et al. In general, efferents innervate the Because of the properties of the tendon, tendon dynamic bag1 ﬁbre (cf. The afferent volley for the EPSP, the rising phase of which may be some 5– soleus tendon jerk reaches the popliteal fossa some 10 ms, much longer than the 1–2 ms rising phase 4–5 ms after percussion on the Achilles tendon, of the EPSP produced by a single electrical stimu- reaches a peak some 5–10 ms later and lasts some lus to the tibial nerve (Burke, Gandevia & McKeon, 30–40 ms (Burke, Gandevia & McKeon, 1983). There is thus greater opportunity for oligo- to the extreme sensitivity of primary spindle end- synaptic inputs to affect the motoneurone discharge ings, it is not necessary to percuss the appropri- withthetendonjerkthantheHreﬂex. Notwithstand- ate tendon directly: percussion on a bony protu- ing, the rising phase of the electrically evoked EPSP berance will result in a vibration wave that trav- is briefer than might be expected given the opportu- els along the bone exciting muscle spindles in nity for dispersion of the volley created by the long nearby muscles and, in subjects with brisk ten- conduction pathway (much longer than in the cat), don jerks, may produce tendon jerks in multiple theslowerconductionvelocitiesofgroupIaafferents muscles throughout the limb – the phenomenon of −1 (maximally∼60–70ms inthelowerlimb,i. The muscle spin- −1 of Ia conduction velocities (∼60–70 m s down to dle is not the only receptor responsive to ten- −1 ∼48 m s ; see Chapter 7,pp. It has been don percussion, even when the mechanical stimu- suggested that group Ib afferents curtail the electri- lus is delivered carefully only to the appropriate callyevokedEPSPandthattheHreﬂexcanbealtered muscle: sensitive muscle and cutaneous receptors by altering transmission across the Ib inhibitory throughout the limb, even those in antagonists, may interneurone, a situation not equally applicable be excited and the extent of this will be dependent to the tendon jerk (Burke, Gandevia & McKeon, only on effective transmission of the mechanical 1984). There is now direct experimental support stimulus (Burke, Gandevia & McKeon, 1983; Ribot- for this suggestion (Marchand-Pauvert et al. Hreﬂex Conclusions On the other hand, a 1-ms current pulse will excite axons only once, producing a more synchronised The tendon jerk and the H reﬂex are both dependent afferent volley, but one that involves group Ib as on the monosynaptic excitation from homonymous well as group Ia afferents. In addition, the stimu- Ia afferents, but they differ in so many other respects latednerveusuallyinnervatesmanymuscles:e. Underlying principle In the cat, Matthews & Rushworth (1957a,b) demon- Presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals strated that it is possible to block efferents This is more effective on the afferent volley of the H using local anaesthetic applied directly to the reﬂex than on that eliciting the tendon jerk (Morita nerve because they are smaller than efferents. Rushworth (1960) then showed that injections of Methodology 119 dilute procaine into the motor point reduced both Acceptable techniques spasticity and rigidity, an effect attributed, not unreasonably, to efferent blockade (however, Microneurography see below). Microelectrode Situation in human subjects The ﬁrst deﬁnitive reports of microneurography were publishedbyVallbo&Hagbarth(1968)oncuta- The situation in human subjects is quite differ- neous afferents and Hagbarth & Vallbo (1968)on ent from the controlled experimental circumstances muscle afferents. The basic technique has not rather than smaller axons, and this will also be changed greatly since then, and adequate descrip- so when the injection is into the motor point. The ents and efferents and, theoretically at least, reﬂex traditional microelectrode is a monopolar tungsten depression could result from loss of small afferent electrode with a shaft diameter of ∼200 m, insu- inputs rather than loss of fusimotor function. Loss lated to the tip, with an optimal impedance in situ of of the tendon jerk but preservation of near-normal ∼100–150 k for single unit recordings and perhaps strength does not constitute an adequate control for ∼50 k for multi-unit recordings. Some authorities the integrity of motor axons because consider- preferconcentricneedleelectrodeswithorwithouta able denervation is required before the triceps surae bevelled tip, but the electrode has a wider shaft and, muscles become weak to clinical testing. Finally, inpractice,thereisprobablylittleadvantageoverthe microneurographic studies have shown that, in gen- traditional electrode. It is likely that greater involvement of effer- into an appropriate nerve fascicle.
Oral drug does Miscellaneous Antifungal Drugs not require gastric acid for absorption and the drug reaches therapeutic levels in most body ﬂuids and tissues generic cialis sublingual 20mg visa, including Caspofungin (Cancidas) is the ﬁrst echinocandin antifungal normal and inflamed meninges order cialis sublingual 20 mg with mastercard. These drugs are usually dose of twice the usual daily dose, steady-state blood levels fungicidal but they do not act as rapidly as amphotericin B. Once daily dosing may be effective in some resistant strains, Aspergillus organisms, and the organisms that clients with normal renal function. They lack activity as unchanged drug in urine; dosage may need to be reduced in against Cryptococcus species. D-glucan synthase, the enzyme responsible for incorporation 604 SECTION 6 DRUGS USED TO TREAT INFECTIONS of glucose into the glucan ﬁbrils that compose the walls of most unchanged in urine. Depletion of glucan in the fungal cell wall leads to leak- levels monitored in the presence of impaired renal function. Because human cells do Flucytosine causes fewer adverse effects than amphotericin not have cell walls or contain beta glucan, these drugs are less B and the azole antifungals, but may be associated with GI upset toxic than other systemic antifungal drugs. At present, caspo- (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) and bone marrow depression fungin is indicated for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in (eg, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), especially when given clients who cannot take or do not respond to amphotericin B or concurrently with amphotericin B. It has not been studied for initial treatment of in- fungal infections do not tolerate ﬂucytosine well because of vasive aspergillosis. Adverse effects are attributed to con- Caspofungin is given IV and is highly bound to plasma al- version of ﬂucytosine to toxic metabolites in human cells. After a single 1-hour infusion, plasma levels decline Griseofulvin (Fulvicin) has long been used orally for der- in three main phases. A short alpha phase occurs immediately matophyte infections of the scalp and nails and for skin erup- after infusion; an intermediate beta phase has a half-life of 8 tions that were too extensive to be treated with topical agents to 11 hours; and a longer gamma phase has a half-life of 40 alone. There is minimal biotransformation or excretion production in actively growing fungal cells. In infections of during the ﬁrst 30 hours after infusion, then the drug is me- keratinized tissues, the drug binds to keratin (a protein in hair, tabolized slowly and excreted in feces and urine. Over time, the infected Caspofungin is usually well tolerated with doses of tissues are shed and replaced by uninfected tissues. Adverse effects occur in fewer than 3% of recipi- matophytic infections (eg, ringworm) of skin usually im- ents and include nausea, vomiting, and infusion site complica- prove in 3 to 8 weeks. With doses of 50 to 70 mg daily, adverse effects include eliminate onychomycosis of toenails. As a result, griseoful- fever, headache, nausea, phlebitis or thrombophlebitis at infu- vin is being used less often and itraconazole, which is effec- sion sites, and abnormal laboratory reports (eg, decreased tive with shorter courses of therapy, is being used more often. Dosage Oral griseofulvin is poorly absorbed; absorption is im- must be reduced with moderate hepatic impairment (eg, after proved by reducing the particle size (microsize or ultra- a 70-mg loading dose, a 35-mg daily dose is recommended microsize formulations are available) and by taking the drug rather than the 50-mg daily recommended for clients with with fatty meals. The drug has not been studied in microsized formulation because it is better absorbed than the clients with severe hepatic impairment. Common adverse Cyclosporine increases the effects of caspofungin, including effects include GI upset (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), fa- potential liver damage. Concomitant use is not recommended tigue, headache, insomnia, and skin rash. Griseofulvin may decrease the effects of cy- decrease effects include anti-HIV drugs (eg, efavirenz, nelﬁ- closporine, oral contraceptives, salicylates, and warfarin. War- navir, nevirapine), anticonvulsants (eg, carbamazepine, pheny- farin doses may need to be increased and an alternative method toin), dexamethasone, and rifampin. Concurrent administration of contraception may be needed during griseofulvin therapy. The 5-ﬂuorouracil is has fungicidal activity against dermatophytes and has been then metabolized to products that interfere with the synthesis used primarily for topical treatment of ringworm infections of fungal RNA and DNA. Flucytosine has little activity and oral treatment of onychomycosis (fungal infection of against molds or dimorphic fungi and is mainly used for yeast nails). It has signiﬁcant activity against Candida and after drug therapy is stopped, because of the time required Cryptococcus neoformans organisms. It is most often used Candida, Aspergillus, and possibly other fungal organisms, in combination with amphotericin B to treat systemic can- terbinafine is being evaluated for possible use in invasive didiasis and cryptococcal meningitis. If high doses of amphotericin B are tabolism reduces bioavailability to approximately 40%.
Choice of corticosteroid drug is inﬂuenced by many factors order cialis sublingual 20 mg otc, • Dietary changes may be beneﬁcial in some clients purchase 20 mg cialis sublingual overnight delivery. Salt including the purpose for use, characteristics of speciﬁc drugs, restriction may help prevent hypernatremia, ﬂuid reten- desired route of administration, characteristics of individual tion, and edema. Foods high in potassium may help pre- clients, and expected adverse effects. A diet high in protein, calcium, and tional drug choice include the following: vitamin D may help to prevent osteoporosis. Hydrocortisone and cortisone by washing hands frequently, using aseptic technique are usually the drugs of choice because they have when changing dressings, keeping health care personnel greater mineralocorticoid activity compared with other and visitors with colds or other infections away from the corticosteroids. If additional mineralocorticoid activity client, and following other appropriate measures. Nonendocrine disorders, in which anti-inﬂammatory, cated, commonly for those who have had organ trans- antiallergic, antistress, and immunosuppressive effects plants and are receiving corticosteroids to help prevent are desired, can be treated by a corticosteroid drug with rejection of the transplanted organ. Prednisone is often • Handle tissues very gently during any procedures the glucocorticoid of choice. Beclomethasone (Vanceril, long-term corticosteroid therapy weakens the skin and Vancenase), budesonide (Pulmicort, Rhinocort), flu- bones, there are risks of skin damage and fractures with nisolide (Aerobid, Nasalide), fluticasone (Flonase, even minor trauma. Flovent), mometasone (Nasonex), and triamcinolone (Azmacort, Nasacort) are corticosteroids formulated to Evaluation be given by oral or nasal inhalation. Their use replaces, • Interview and observe for relief of symptoms for which prevents, delays, or decreases use of systemic drugs corticosteroids were prescribed. However, high doses or frequent use may suppress • Interview and observe for use of nondrug measures indi- adrenocortical function. Cerebral edema associated with brain tumors, cran- • Interview and observe for adverse drug effects on a reg- iotomy, or head injury. With brain tu- mors, the drug is more effective in metastatic lesions PRINCIPLES OF THERAPY and glioblastomas than astrocytomas and meningiomas. Acute, life-threatening situations require a drug that Risk–Beneﬁt Factors can be given parenterally, usually intravenously (IV). Because systemic corticosteroid drugs can cause serious able in injectable preparations. Hydrocortisone, dex- adverse reactions, indications for their clinical use amethasone, and methylprednisolone are among those should be as clear-cut as possible. Long-term use of pharmacologic Dosage Factors doses (eg, more than 5 mg of prednisone daily) produces adverse reactions. For this reason, long-term cortico- Dosage of corticosteroid drugs must be individualized be- steroid therapy should be reserved for life-threatening cause it is inﬂuenced by many factors, such as the speciﬁc conditions or severe, disabling symptoms that do not re- drug to be given, the desired route of administration, the rea- spond to treatment with more benign drugs or other son for use, expected adverse effects, and client characteris- measures. The goal of corticosteroid therapy is usually to reduce for the shortest effective time. Total suppression of following: symptoms may require excessively large doses and 1. Dosage must be individualized according to the sever- produce excessive adverse effects. Later weight gains may be caused by ✔ In most instances, corticosteroids are used to relieve ﬂuid retention. However, increased activity may not longer than 2 weeks, it is extremely important to take the be desirable for everyone. Missing a dose or two, stopping the drug, tis, for example, may become too active when drug ther- changing the amount or time of administration, or taking apy relieves joint pain and increases mobility. Some complications are relatively minor; several are therapy for rheumatoid arthritis). When these drugs are being allow smaller doses of corticosteroids and decrease ad- discontinued, the dosage is gradually reduced over several verse effects. These symptoms may indicate adverse drug effects and ✔ Report to all health care providers consulted that cortico- changes in corticosteroid therapy may be indicated. Current or previous corticosteroid therapy occur when drug dosage is reduced, withdrawn, or omitted can inﬂuence treatment measures, and such knowledge (eg, the nondrug day of alternate-day therapy). This is extremely im- be tolerated if possible rather than increasing the corti- portant so that the physician can detect adverse reactions, costeroid dose. If severe, of course, dosage or time of ad- evaluate disease status, and evaluate drug response and ministration may have to be changed. Periodic blood tests, (eg, by not adding table salt to foods and avoiding obvi- x-ray studies, and other tests may be performed during ously salty foods, such as many snack foods and prepared long-term corticosteroid therapy.
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